Pottery factory due to domestic demand as well as the demands of foreign markets need more products to external ceramic kilns small craft probably throughout the rural areas, in many parts of the country have formed the center of ceramic production quite famous, qualified certain specialization. It is the manufacturing center of Chu Dau ceramic blue flowers, valid, Dependable in Hai Duong, Bat Trang in Hanoi, pottery production center in Vinh Phuc Huong Canh, Tho Ha Bac Ninh, Phu Lang in Bac Giang, Thanh Hoa Lo
It can be said with the advent and development of strong blue and white ceramics led to the gradual decline of celadon pottery and ceramic flowers brown. Yet in the early 15th century celadon pottery continued to be produced in quantities not the most traditional style of aristocratic drawing lines this figure pottery. Today we still occasionally come across a relatively thick plate, decorative engraved text lotus petals, chrysanthemum wire, coated with a celadon relatively thick greenish. Celadon now but still have not the shadow shimmering like Tran Ly Dynasty celadon ceramics.
The most striking characteristic of ceramic Le – Nguyen is the birth and development of the blue and white ceramics. Blue and white ceramics developed during Le – Nguyen and for all tonight. Blue and white ceramics are not the creativity of the pottery Vietnam. In fact, blue and white ceramics dating from very early in China. Documents China said at the Chinese potter Originally known as the blue and white ceramics they called ceramic flower bar. By early Ming Zheng seven times on abroad brought from Central Asia to cobalt have very low levels of manganese, iron content is relatively high, but also to evil makes move nick color becomes blue flowers fresh more beautiful, so are foreigners from Asia to Europe preferred, so porcelain blue and white became the largest export items, during the most frantic Minh, Thanh. The attractiveness of blue and white porcelain Land. The most typical and famous Chinese porcelain blue and white porcelain blue and white Jingdezhen. Chances are blue and white porcelain the Early blue flowers that grill in Fujian Dehua white porcelain production capital must also learn grills Jingdezhen in Jiangxi production Le swept our country also affected by blue and white porcelain Jingdezhen.
Existed for several hundred years and developed ear, sometimes blue and white ceramics hearing impairment, but before then retains the essential character of their own. Blue and white ceramics typical of our country’s period of Le Chu Dau ceramics. Chu Dau ceramic blue flowers not only give the domestic demand but also exported to Southeast Asian countries, Japan, India, Europe and also present in the Middle East. Topkapi Saray Museum in Turkey has displayed a blue and white ceramic vase Chu Dau very nice record dating to 1450. And recently, we’ve already excavated shipwreck near Cu Lao Cham carrying more than 240,000 blue and white pottery Vietnam South, which mainly blue and Chu Dau pottery.
Unlike ceramic celadon pottery and blue flowers, blue and white ceramics are ceramic pattern drawing a line under the glaze color, so color is not firing once peeling and discoloration. The use of blue and white ceramics painted cobalt blue motifs blueprints ceramic workpiece surface, then cover up and baked enamel radiolucent with high temperatures for the underglaze blue and white ceramics.
In materials, blue and white ceramics passed porous ceramic or ceramic crockery common herd in the previous period. Blue and white ceramics are made from white clay, graphite kaolin is also added with the soil type specialized in manufacture porcelain. Raw materials to be screened carefully, remove impurities, very finely ground bone. Products also are heated to relatively high temperatures incipient fire ground bone, tight grain texture, smooth, high-strength bone facilitates making thin beauty products.
To get the color pattern in blue under glaze is fresh, known potter choose the type of soil, go and cobalt oxide-rich rocks and know proper furnace control. Blue cobalt oxide is mainly used, but generally, the furnace in China as well as in our country is not used directly cobalt oxide, which uses natural mineral cobalt. In the mineral cobalt, cobalt oxide as the main outside, there is a small amount of iron oxide, manganese oxide. But it is the side but it makes blue with different shades of greenish, blue-gray, small black dot point, and so on. enhance the landscape. Therefore to know choosing suitable cobalt mineralization. Even in China has recently taken using cobalt in cobalt imported water for the production of export porcelain blue flowers
Blue and white ceramics are also an innovation in the non-stick enamel during firing. Celadon pottery and ceramics are used brown Ly Tran “the list” 4, 5 feet placed between the plates in a stack of sticky glaze to resist, until now been replaced by the “heart -tick”. The Technical heart is one of the evaluation criteria for our country pottery.
The importance of not only blue and white ceramics shown in shades of blue, which is also reflected in the content and artistic expression pattern. Previously, the patterns on celadon pottery are engraved on ceramic and enameled embryonically, larval tried the colored ceramic flower motifs engraved on after enameled. Also on the blue and white ceramics are represented by art brush. Can clearly see the blue and white ceramics tried to exploit elements of the painting in the pattern shown. With an artistic soul and skillful hands, potters have created the motif, the emotional and projects according to their perception. The rich schemes vivid pattern is formed by means of drawing brush, when reporters when fair blue when diluted as special, as thick as thin as the blue flowers, with shimmering shades. Blue and white ceramics is the pinnacle of the art of decorating our country. Pen soft fur, belly spearhead, can create major strokes or hand -pieces according to press, it is extremely rich operation as windows, tiles, colon, comma, jerked, quotes, pulled from the bottom up, from left to right or vice versa, making the project become the soft pattern, lively. The reporter pen strokes but still distinctly flexible flying butterflies.
Phoenix bird and the bird often seen as guests. Previously on brown ceramic flowers, birds usually expressed posture goes, then on the blue and white ceramics usually birds. Brush, with the release pen strokes, potters painted the birds fly very lively, graceful, gentle. Pictures shrimp fishing is usually reflected in dynamic poses, they swim side beams soft seaweed, or jump up on the undulating waves.
The motifs, blueprints, decorative threads on the blue and white ceramics are also many other new ones before. On the daily chart used as bowls, vases, plates, teapots, mushrooms wine, and more. mostly decorated with flowers, birds, horses, fish, and shrimp, v.v.Con on worshiping as candlesticks, incense burners decorated mainly provided dragon phoenix cup, listening, etc.
Popular decorative flowers on a blue and white ceramics are lotus and chrysanthemum. Lotus and chrysanthemum here often constitute the branch line connecting fringing foliage twisted like wire rope secret vote, commonly known as chrysanthemum wire, wire cable, with clouds near the fire. Decorative shower at the end of each body usually shows ranked petals separated into ice around the body, in every office water wave wing decorations.
Horses galloping usually shown in various poses very high spirits. Dragon and the young lion is the symbol is expressed as true in life. Dragon style of Le – Mac, healthy body, dorsal saddles, horned head, mane bristling, sharp claws foot lot is expressed in many different positions, sometimes sprawled out like flies on the floor clouds, sometimes just meandering just curled like dragons hatching, etc. Rattan is a decorative motif is common in blue and white ceramics.
Clouds often expressed a spiraling nothing flames flying style should be called a cloud of fire.
The motif pattern on journalists expressed pen style butterfly fly, but always be a tight layout, the array of shades of the pattern developed inflexible lists.
On a product often decorative patterns into horizontal bands according to the traditional layout of pottery decorative arts in our country. Which has a wider main band but not the complexity, size, and density are the most prominent pattern of ice fringing.
Also on the disc, the area is the flat and decorative circle. Decorative motifs are usually spread over the entire surface, with a clear theme makes us feel like it was a complete picture.
Along with the richness and innovation of pattern, blue and white pottery designs also have other specific characteristics in advance. More noticeable is the trend rising by height, shape, elegant, less coarse than before. Trends Vertical rise not only reflected on the legs gangly lamps, incense burners, mushrooms wine, but also that both of the bowls, plates high heel. Feet high and become bowl-kind blue and white ceramics typical of the 15th century in our country.
Early blue and white ceramics production are mainly used everyday items such as bowls, plates, pots, kettles, jars, mushrooms alcohol, etc. are shaping elegant, thin, often with mouth hole, round belly, high heel, small handles, and taps, there is harmony between the shapes and contours. For daily used ceramics, the decorations mainly lotus flowers, daisies, lemon and birds, fish, shrimp. Such as high foot bowl, bell mouth, deep, ivory enameled, painted blue outer lotus and chrysanthemum wire, round brown coloring. The Border of red coloring is also multicenter of Chu Dau ceramic blue flowers. The bell mouth alcohol units in many, neck waist, slim body shape pipe long circular, low-grower base, ivory enameled, painted blue magpie-robin birds or eagles, literature and cultural lotus banana leaf decorations horizontal bands. This wine shoots designs as well as patterns pretty close to the same type produced in Jingdezhen (Zhejiang) and Yuxi (Yunnan) China. Warm type small mouth, long neck, round belly, low grower base, with long straps long hose bends, ivory enameled, painted blue body shape phoenix, lotus, and chrysanthemum flowers wire stretcher quite common. There are kinds of designs and patterns are exactly the same type on, but sided abdominal leaf embossed wood carving subject to puncture several holes quite nicely.
The blue and white pottery is largely produced from the Early Le Chu Dau oven.
Also, common pottery, blue and white ceramics worshiping there as candlesticks, censers good size, tall, forming complex and sophisticated decoration, style influences the type of wood convenient amenities. They are often divided into several sections, more dense piece decorative motifs of the iconic dragon gaudy glasses provided with the type of cloud phoenix fire, the cloud line, etc. Notably, the décor in worship is often combined with painted blue embossed dragon phoenix birds. Such as the high candlesticks, cutting board on a widespread, between wide neck aneurysm, stomach flat round, high heel. Systemic ivory enamel, the body has many well-brimmed brown coloring, body and legs seem to the writer coronary banana leaves, daisies wire, etc. Or like a center with average square, the mouth is different 4 beautiful well-patterned, 4 mounting angles 4 listeners, square 4 sides bulging body, in the form of sacred animals embossed frame. Brackets kind kneeling, flowers embossed text. Systemic ivory enamel, colored brick patterned premature. Average also center round, wide mouth deep, spherical body, tiger-shaped 4 feet high in the stand in a row, rising ears relief two kanji “Buddha Mind”. Systemic yellowish green enameled, engraved and embossed lotus flowers and chamomile comb documents.
The types of worship pattern embossed blue paint combined production largely on the Le – Mac, Century 16-17.
Chu Dau ceramic blue flowers, valid flourished during three centuries in the Le Dynasty – shaking his Mac marks the glorious period in the history of our country pottery. From the 18th century on the lam after Chu Dau ceramics, valid almost dies off. So far, we do not know with certainty the reason for this recession. Very likely, it is a feudal state period our country entered a period of crisis, recession and Western colonial invasion began eyeing. Many industries, handicraft industries our country has stagnated, ceramic manufacturing industry has not escaped the ruined landscape that decline. In that situation, blue and white ceramics industry has 2 different trends. Or is producing low-quality ceramic, low cost affordable by the majority of the people are living miserable at that time. This pottery simple styling, heavy, poorly decorated with rich, patterned pale blue. Or that mimic the style of the Qing porcelain in China making products for mandarins of the Nguyen Dynasty and the rich to the Elites. This decorative pottery micromanaging, dense, somewhat gimmicky. It should be added that this is also the period porcelains appear “style up” of imperial Le Trinh and the Nguyen emperors. Do not get the blue and white ceramics of high quality, imperial porcelain kilns order for China Jingdezhen porcelain to serve in the royal family and officials in the government. This incident also affected the development of blue and white
In that situation, the Bat Trang pottery kiln and a few other centers have found the exit is acquiring some new techniques and styles in ceramic production technology of Qing China to produce the product high quality. With the new manufacturing technology they were able to make the large-sized products that previously kilns do not. Those are high vase 80 – 90cm, or a wide mouth Odori 50 – 60cm. The décor also has significant improvements. More common is the pattern linking them with drawing up blue or multi-colored paint. Content patterns, landscape got as consistent pattern pheasant dung, peacock, spare landscape fortune, dragons flanking the moon, bowl first scene, snow scenes range bike tomorrow, etc. also drawn to fairy stories such as Su Yu goatherd, Van United players to beat, he obtained the benefit fishermen, etc. Is the government majority-white mosaic, multicolored painted relief. Common kinds of vase, bottle shape her spleen, mushrooms wine, Choe, statistics, etc. harmonious designs dazzling decorations. That’s a tall vase on sloping shoulders 60cm horizontal bell mouth elongated body ivory white enameled relief reefs draw multicolored peacock scene compliance solution into the mouth of the bottle or spill out thick spherical embossed round belly government documents mosaic lotus embossed ivory colored drawing first sight bowl sitting under the tree. Or as the bottle- shaped bell mouth neck pipe two reefs white enameled ear, embossed multi-colored painted fishing scene he was worshiped. The tip of the mouth Choe stood tall lid sloping shoulders are blooming belly, legs slightly Grower opaque white enameled decoration reefs double dragon playing with white clouds. There Choe painted embossed decoration multicolored dragons 9. The President of a mouth spill out thick meniscus body are white enameled embossed picture painted multicolored tiger playing with flowers is also very characteristic. Bat Trang products Century 18-19 large size embossed pattern vivid colors draw so far is still the dream of many antique collectors and abroad.
Comes to ceramic Le – Nguyen impossible not to mention pottery can.Trong excavations Hoang Thang Long discovered is pretty much crockery shows that time is not just a puzzle gourmet utensils of the common people but also using both of the courts. From the Le sisters, the crockery production centers thrive. Each center has its own style products. Such specialized production Huong Canh unglazed earthen brown has a variety of products such as cans, jar, pot, Choe, jars, jars, adjust, Reserved, but more famous brews and urine. The center also specializes in producing Phu Lang pottery glazed eel skin color. Phu Lang ceramic crockery eel skin with yellow color is very special, not the ball, uneven color, dark place stretch co enamel glaze to create the very specific definition of gourmet, Phu Lang. This enzyme is created by mixing lime with gray go, a weathered rocks son called rock rotten place, only Phu Lang village. Products will crockery Phu Lang mostly everyday items such as jars, pots, etc. with a strong silhouette, color glaze yellow eel skin exudes a familiar feeling close to rural life and soul of Vietnam.
Through the medium section presents can see through 5 centuries from the Le to Nguyen ceramic Vietnam is constantly evolving, but sometimes a temporary downturn, but more typical is the center include blue and Chu Dau, Hop Festival, drawing colorful ceramic relief mosaic and Bat Trang pottery centers unleavened and leavened Huong Canh Phu Lang Vietnamese pottery factory